Deskriptive Statistiken und Grafiken (German Edition)
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Richter's opinions and perspectives on his own art, and that of the larger art market and various artistic movements, are compiled in a chronological record of "Writings" and interviews. The following quotes are excerpts from the compilation: .
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Richter created various painting pictures from black-and-white photographs during the s and early s, basing them on a variety of sources: newspapers and books, sometimes incorporating their captions, as in Helga Matura ; private snapshots; aerial views of towns and mountains, Cityscape Madrid and Alps ; seascapes —70 ; and a large multipart work made for the German Pavilion in the Venice Biennale. For Forty-eight Portraits —72 , he chose mainly the faces of composers such as Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius , and of writers such as H.
Wells and Franz Kafka. From his "Writings", the following refer to quotations regarding photography, its relationship with painting, and the "blur":. Many of these paintings are made in a multi-step process of representations. He starts with a photograph , which he has found or taken himself, and projects it onto his canvas , where he traces it for exact form. Taking his color palette from the photograph, he paints to replicate the look of the original picture. His hallmark "blur" is achieved sometimes with a light touch of a soft brush, sometimes a hard smear by an aggressive pull with a squeegee.
From around , Richter made a number of portraits of dealers, collectors, artists and others connected with his immediate professional circle. Richter's two portraits of Betty , his daughter, were made in and respectively; the three portraits titled IG were made in and depict the artist's second wife, Isa Genzken. Lesende portrays Sabine Moritz , whom Richter married in , shown absorbed in the pages of a magazine. Richter began making prints in He was most active before , only completing sporadic projects since that time. In the period —, Richter made most of his prints more than , of the same or similar subjects in his paintings.
While elements of landscape painting appeared initially in Richter's work early on in his career in , the artist began his independent series of landscapes in after his first vacation, an excursion that landed him besotted with the terrain of Corsica. They are compared to the work of Caspar David Friedrich — Friedrich is foundational to German landscape painting. Each artist spent formative years of their lives in Dresden. Atlas was first exhibited in at the Museum voor Hedendaagse Kunst in Utrecht under the title Atlas der Fotos und Skizzen , it included parts. The work has continued to expand, and was exhibited later in full form at the Lenbachhaus in Munich in , the Museum Ludwig in Cologne in , and at Dia Art Foundation in New York in Atlas continues as an ongoing, encyclopedic work composed of approximately 4, photographs, reproductions or cut-out details of photographs and illustrations, grouped together on approximately separate panels.
In , Richter embarked on a ten-day trip to Greenland , his friend Hanne Darboven was meant to accompany him, but instead he traveled alone. His intention was to experience and record the desolate arctic landscape. In , four large paintings, each titled Seascape emerged from the Greenland photographs.
In and , Richter made a series of paintings of Candles and Skulls that relate to a longstanding tradition of still life memento mori painting. Each composition is most commonly based on a photograph taken by Richter in his own studio. The Candle paintings coincided with his first large-scale abstract paintings, and represent the complete antithesis to those vast, colorful and playfully meaningless works. Richter has made only 27 of these still lifes. His solitary candle was reproduced on a monumental scale and placed overlooking the River Elbe as a symbol of rejuvenation.
In a series of 15 ambiguous photo paintings entitled 18 October , he depicted four members of the Red Army Faction RAF , a German left-wing militant organization.
These paintings were created from black-and-white newspaper and police photos. Three RAF members were found dead in their prison cells on 18 October and the cause of their deaths was the focus of widespread controversy. The paintings were based on an official portrait of Ulrike Meinhof during her years as a radical journalist; on photographs of the arrest of Holger Meins ; on police shots of Gudrun Ensslin in prison; on Andreas Baader 's bookshelves and the record player to conceal his gun; on the dead figures of Meinhof, Ensslin, and Baader; and on the funeral of Ensslin, Baader, and Jan-Carl Raspe.
Since , Richter has worked on creating new images by dragging wet paint over photographs. The photographs, not all taken by Richter himself, are mostly snapshots of daily life: family vacations, pictures of friends, mountains, buildings and streetscapes. A few years later, he made one small painting specifically about the planes crashing into the World Trade Center. In the s, Richter made a number of works that dealt with scientific phenomena. In , he produced several paintings with the same title: Silicate.
Large oil-on-canvas pieces, these show latticed rows of light- and dark-grey blobs whose shapes quasi-repeat as they race across the frame, their angle modulating from painting to painting. They depict a photo, published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , of a computer-generated simulacrum of reflections from the silicon dioxide found in insects' shells. Coming full-circle from his early Table in which he cancelled his photorealist image with haptic swirls of grey paint,  in , Richter produced the first of a group of grey monochromes that consist exclusively of the textures resulting from different methods of paint application.
In , Richter first gave the title Abstract Painting to one of his works. By presenting a painting without even a few words to name and explain it, he felt he was "letting a thing come, rather than creating it. Throughout his process, Richter uses the same techniques he uses in his representational paintings, blurring and scraping to veil and expose prior layers.
From the mids, Richter began to use a homemade squeegee to rub and scrape the paint that he had applied in large bands across his canvases.
The following are Richter's answers:. The Grey Pictures were done at a time when there were monochrome paintings everywhere. I painted them nonetheless. In the s the artist began to run his squeegee up and down the canvas in an ordered fashion to produce vertical columns that take on the look of a wall of planks. Richter's abstract work and its illusion of space developed out of his incidental process: an accumulation of spontaneous, reactive gestures of adding, moving, and subtracting paint.
Despite unnatural palettes, spaceless sheets of color, and obvious trails of the artist's tools, the abstract pictures often act like windows through which we see the landscape outside. As in his representational paintings, there is an equalization of illusion and paint. In those paintings, he reduces worldly images to mere incidents of Art.
Similarly, in his abstract pictures, Richter exalts spontaneous, intuitive mark-making to a level of spatial logic and believability. Firenze continues a cycle of 99 works conceived in the autumn of and executed in the same year and thereafter. After , Richter made a number of works that dealt with scientific phenomena, in particular, with aspects of reality that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
This work was published in as a book entitled War Cut. In November , Richter began a series in which he applied ink droplets to wet paper, using alcohol and lacquer to extend and retard the ink's natural tendency to bloom and creep. The resulting November sheets are regarded as a significant departure from his previous watercolours in that the pervasive soaking of ink into wet paper produced double-sided works. Sometimes the uppermost sheets bled into others, generating a sequentially developing series of images. As early as , Richter had made paintings based on colour charts, using the rectangles of colour as found objects in an apparently limitless variety of hue; these culminated in —4 in a series of large-format pictures such as Colours.
When he began to make these paintings, Richter had his friend Blinky Palermo randomly call out colors, which Richter then adopted for his work.
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Chance thus plays its role in the creation of his first series. Returning to color charts in the s, Richter changed his focus from the readymade to the conceptual system, developing mathematical procedures for mixing colours and chance operations for their placement.
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Each color was then randomly ordered to create the resultant composition and form of the painting. Richter's second series of Color Charts was begun in and consisted of only five paintings. In the final series of Color Charts which preoccupied Richter throughout and , additional elements to this permutational system of color production were added in the form of mixes of a light grey, a dark gray and later, a green. Richter's Colours from consisted of bright monochrome squares that have been randomly arranged in a grid pattern to create stunning fields of kaleidoscopic color.
It was produced at the same time he developed his design for the south transept window of Cologne Cathedral. Richter developed Version II — 49 paintings, each of which measures 97 by 97 centimeters — especially for the Serpentine Gallery. Richter began to use glass in his work in , when he made Four Panes of Glass.
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In , he and Blinky Palermo jointly submitted designs for the sports facilities for the Olympic Games in Munich. For the front of the arena, they proposed an array of glass windows in twenty-seven different colors; each color would appear fifty times, with the distribution determined randomly. For pieces such as Mirror Painting Grey, , the mirrors were coloured grey by the pigment attached to the back of the glass.
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In , for the Dia Art Foundation , Richter created a glass sculpture in which seven parallel panes of glass refract light and the world beyond, offering altered visions of the exhibition space; Spiegel I Mirror I and Spiegel II Mirror II , a two-part mirror piece from that measures 7' tall and 18' feet long, which alters the boundaries of the environment and again changes one's visual experience of the gallery; and Kugel Sphere , , a stainless steel sphere that acts as a mirror, reflecting the space.
In , the Drawing Center showed Lines which do not exist , a survey of Richter's drawings from to , including works made using mechanical intervention such as attaching a pencil to an electric hand drill. Lossin wrote in The Brooklyn Rail : "Viewed as a personal and possibly professional deficiency, Richter's drawing practice consisted of diligently documenting something that didn't work—namely a hand that couldn't draw properly.