Going Global US Goverment Policy: Initial Findings
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Following these statements some lawmakers from both parties warned national security officials during a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee that they must change their use of sweeping National Security Agency surveillance programs or face losing the provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that have allowed for the agency's mass collection of telephone metadata. Jim Sensenbrenner, R-Wis. Otherwise, in two and a half years, you're not going to have it anymore. Leaks of classified documents pointed to the role of a special court in enabling the government's secret surveillance programs, but members of the court maintained they were not collaborating with the executive branch.
Congress pressed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to release declassified versions of its secret ruling, the court dismissed those requests arguing that the decisions can't be declassified because they contain classified information. There is a rigorous review process of applications submitted by the executive branch, spearheaded initially by five judicial branch lawyers who are national security experts, and then by the judges, to ensure that the court's authorizations comport with what the applicable statutes authorize.
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Leahy: "The annual statistics provided to Congress by the Attorney General These statistics do not reflect the fact that many applications are altered to prior or final submission or even withheld from final submission entirely, often after an indication that a judge would not approve them. The U. Polli had publicly stated in that he had received requests from US intelligence agencies to do things that would be in violation of Austrian law, which Polli refused to allow.
The Australian government has said it will investigate the impact of the PRISM program and the use of the Pine Gap surveillance facility on the privacy of Australian citizens.
Brazil 's president at the time, Dilma Rousseff , responded to Snowden's reports that the NSA spied on her phone calls and emails by cancelling a planned October state visit to the United States, demanding an official apology, which by October 20, , hadn't come. On 20 October a committee at the European Parliament backed a measure that, if it is enacted, would require American companies to seek clearance from European officials before complying with United States warrants seeking private data.
The legislation has been under consideration for two years. The vote is part of efforts in Europe to shield citizens from online surveillance in the wake of revelations about a far-reaching spying program by the U. National Security Agency.
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After finding out about the PRISM program, the Mexican Government has started constructing its own spying program to spy on its own citizens. But they have all the partners doing it for them and then they share all the information. At a meeting of European Union leaders held the week of 21 October , Mariano Rajoy , Spain's prime minister, said that "spying activities aren't proper among partner countries and allies".
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On 28 October the Spanish government summoned the American ambassador, James Costos , to address allegations that the U. They found in each case a warrant for interception was in place in accordance with the legal safeguards contained in UK law. In August , The Guardian newspaper's offices were visited by agents from GCHQ, who ordered and supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden. Corporate executives of several companies identified in the leaked documents told The Guardian that they had no knowledge of the PRISM program in particular and also denied making information available to the government on the scale alleged by news reports.
In response to the technology companies' confirmation of the NSA being able to directly access the companies' servers, The New York Times reported that sources had stated the NSA was gathering the surveillance data from the companies using other technical means in response to court orders for specific sets of data. In another classified report obtained by The Post, the arrangement is described as allowing 'collection managers [to send] content tasking instructions directly to equipment installed at company-controlled locations,' rather than directly to company servers.
I wouldn't be surprised if they were subject to a gag order. The New York Times reported on June 7, , that "Twitter declined to make it easier for the government. But other companies were more compliant, according to people briefed on the negotiations. While providing data in response to a legitimate FISA request approved by the FISA Court is a legal requirement, modifying systems to make it easier for the government to collect the data is not.
This is why Twitter could legally decline to provide an enhanced mechanism for data transmission. In response to the publicity surrounding media reports of data-sharing, several companies requested permission to reveal more public information about the nature and scope of information provided in response to National Security requests. On June 14, , Facebook reported that the U. That same day, Microsoft reported that for the same period, it received "between 6, and 7, criminal and national security warrants, subpoenas and orders affecting between 31, and 32, consumer accounts from U.
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Google issued a statement criticizing the requirement that data be reported in aggregated form, stating that lumping national security requests with criminal request data would be "a step backwards" from its previous, more detailed practices on its website's transparency report. The company said that it would continue to seek government permission to publish the number and extent of FISA requests. Cisco Systems saw a huge drop in export sales because of fears that the National Security Agency could be using backdoors in its products.
On September 12, , Yahoo! The New York Times editorial board charged that the Obama administration "has now lost all credibility on this issue,"  and lamented that "for years, members of Congress ignored evidence that domestic intelligence-gathering had grown beyond their control, and, even now, few seem disturbed to learn that every detail about the public's calling and texting habits now reside in a N. James Robertson , a former federal district judge based in Washington who served on the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act court for three years between and and who ruled against the Bush administration in the landmark Hamdan v.
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Rumsfeld case, said FISA court is independent but flawed because only the government's side is represented effectively in its deliberations. He suggested creating an advocate with security clearance who would argue against government filings. I don't think that is a judicial function. Daly observed that, "The problem is not just what the National Security Agency is gathering at the risk of our privacy but what it is apparently unable to monitor at the risk of our safety.
Ron Paul , a former Republican member of Congress and prominent libertarian , thanked Snowden and Greenwald and denounced the mass surveillance as unhelpful and damaging, urging instead more transparency in U. New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman defended limited government surveillance programs intended to protect the American people from terrorist acts:.
That is why I'll reluctantly, very reluctantly, trade off the government using data mining to look for suspicious patterns in phone numbers called and e-mail addresses—and then have to go to a judge to get a warrant to actually look at the content under guidelines set by Congress—to prevent a day where, out of fear, we give government a license to look at anyone, any e-mail, any phone call, anywhere, anytime.
Political commentator David Brooks similarly cautioned that government data surveillance programs are a necessary evil: "if you don't have mass data sweeps, well, then these agencies are going to want to go back to the old-fashioned eavesdropping, which is a lot more intrusive. Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer worried less about the legality of PRISM and other NSA surveillance tools than about the potential for their abuse without more stringent oversight.
We need a toughening of both congressional oversight and judicial review, perhaps even some independent outside scrutiny. Plus periodic legislative revision—say, reauthorization every couple of years—in light of the efficacy of the safeguards and the nature of the external threat. The object is not to abolish these vital programs.
It's to fix them. In a blog post, David Simon , the creator of The Wire , compared the NSA's programs, including PRISM, to a s effort by the City of Baltimore to add dialed number recorders to all pay phones to know which individuals were being called by the callers;  the city believed that drug traffickers were using pay phones and pagers, and a municipal judge allowed the city to place the recorders. The placement of the dialers formed the basis of the show's first season. Simon argued that the media attention regarding the NSA programs is a "faux scandal.
Political activist, and frequent critic of U. But governments will use whatever technology is available to them to combat their primary enemy — which is their own population. Sentiment around the world was that of general displeasure upon learning the extent of world communication data mining.
Some national leaders spoke against the NSA and some spoke against their own national surveillance. One national minister had scathing comments on the National Security Agency's data-mining program, citing Benjamin Franklin: "The more a society monitors, controls, and observes its citizens, the less free it is. After Carr replied that there was a legal framework to protect Australians but that the government would not comment on intelligence matters, Xenophon argued that this was not a specific answer to his question.
Taliban spokesperson Zabiullah Mujahid said, "We knew about their past efforts to trace our system. We have used our technical resources to foil their efforts and have been able to stop them from succeeding so far. Reactions of internet users in China were mixed between viewing a loss of freedom worldwide and seeing state surveillance coming out of secrecy. The story broke just before U. To me, it's abusively using government powers to interfere in individuals' privacy.
This is an important moment for international society to reconsider and protect individual rights. This is the nature of secret government organizations.
The only way to protect the people's privacy is not to allow the government to collect their information in the first place. Matthew Schofield of the McClatchy Washington Bureau said, "Germans are dismayed at Obama's role in allowing the collection of so much information. The Italian president of the Guarantor for the protection of personal data, Antonello Soro, said that the surveillance dragnet "would not be legal in Italy" and would be "contrary to the principles of our legislation and would represent a very serious violation.
CNIL French data protection watchdog intimates Google to change its privacy policies within three months or it'll risk fines up to , euros.