Profession philosophe (French Edition)
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Which conditions must a philosophic speech meet to be published in a general media? In order to propose elements of answers to this question, we analyse the production conditions and the results of an original collaboration between journalists and researchers.
In a pragmatic sociological approach, we describe how the journalistic situation oblige philosophers to perform their work in the newspaper around a small number of practices, which are supposed to be agreed by journalists.
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For some journalists, the philosophical discourse can be an ally to distend the heavy reliance that journalism maintains with the social sciences, and especially the sociology Goulet and Ponet, On one hand, many professional philosophers prefer socializing with their peers on precise and complex discussion, using a discursive style which cannot fit with the formats published in the newspapers Crettaz von Roten, Moeschler, On the other hand, journalists who work for mainstream media publications have a temporality that oscillates between the daily and the weekly publication Neveu, , far away from the untimeliness claimed by many philosophers.
This issue was extensively discussed under the more general question of the relationship between the intellectuals and the media, which include two main types of analysis.
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This approach, which notably guide the work of Louis Pinto Pinto, , easily describes how can a readership can arise at an historical moment for philosophical reflections in the news. It can also explain the ease with which intellectuals and sociologists can exceed their mutual professional cultures to cooperate on a common project. However, this explanation by the social properties tends to describe this phenomena as a kind of social magic, an automatism between people with the same social properties.
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We are rather interested by the specific commitments in which journalist and intellectuals invest when they agree to mutually reconcile their role. In particular, this author has observed that that some of the journalists who popularized the writings of Gilles Deleuze during the 's were his former students Dosse, Despite its lack of sociological theory, this approach advantageously points the unifying role of the coexistence, the shared beliefs, in the intellectual collaboration.
However, this kind of work does not offer the precise details we search about these collaborations.
We shall pursue the observations of the journalistic work made by Luc Boltanski Boltanski, and Cyril Lemieux Lemieux, First, we examined this newspaper in a qualitative and a quantitative manner. Then we collected several testimonies about the context of this cooperation. We viewed on the newspaper's website the video of the press conference which involved together the philosophers and the journalists.
We also based ourselves on the testimony of the philosophers published in this edition, telling the conditions of this collaboration. Finally, we took notes on the book of Robert Maggiori Maggiori, , the Liberation journalist who organized this cooperation; his book details the beliefs that incite him to create relations between philosophy and journalism.
We interviewed him a few weeks after the publication of this special issue, which enabled us to obtain clarification on some practical details of this issue. We also chose to include in this article excerpts from interviews conducted as part of our PhD, with journalists of the French newspaper Le Monde. Indeed, these journalists work in a section specialized in the publication of intellectuals forums. They explained some principles that apply to the texts that they receive when they want publish them in their section.
It seemed to us that the techniques used in Le Monde had also prevailed for making Libe des philosophes. What do these marks say about the philosophers character expected by these journalists? We inspired ourselves from the sociological work of the economics of greatness, to measure these expected qualities. We concluded that they are both of academic and media nature. We supposed that the philosophers had language restrictions related to the specificity of the press.
We identified three of these constraints: the maximum size obligation, the need to reason with common place arguments, and the requirement of an elegant expression. We were particularly interested here in the tensions between the usual practice of philosophical writing and the specific constraints of this exceptional exercise.
We were trying to characterize what distinguishes it from ordinary journalistic production. This question has no easy answer because one can be a philosopher with no official capacity for doing it, no acknowledgement from the official institutions. Dictionaries that offer a precise definition of the term "philosopher" clearly distinguish the professional practice of the philosophy and the philosopher who use their time as rationally studying nature, natural causes and morality.
Therefore, we wondered how the journalists of Liberation present the philosophical activities of their guests.
The articles of this special issue also cover the news of the day, and their size fit in the usual ones. We assumed that the intention of the authors of this issue was not upset their readership. As a consequence, we assumed that the journalists would recruit some philosophers who would be easy to identify as such. We supposed that the title claimed by these philosophers has been designed to convict the readership that they are real philosophers. In this paper, the authors observe how journalists ensure the consistency of the texts they publish in their newspapers.
They note that journalists give some importance to the title put forward by the author. They conclude that a journalist plans to publish a text only if it considers that it fits the title with which the person signs it. Therefore, we supposed that the article and the signature of these philosophers are balanced with the rest of their intervention.
Indeed, the authors are partly legitimized in advance by the reference made in the journal cover that this issue is written by philosophers.
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This title gives a certain stature to the authors, since it indicates that each participant in this issue is a "philosopher". But this banner is not the only sign proposed to the readers to attest to the importance of the published authors. The exact titles of the authors are often quoted in full.
The philosopher Paul Audi signs without any title. One of the authors presents himself via a description of his work: "translator of Spinoza's correspondence. A brief Internet search reveals that most of these researchers presented without specific grade are senior lecturers or professors one instance is Elisabeth Roudinesco, simply presented as an "historian". We shall try a parallel with the recruiting logic of televised debate analysed by Eric Darras Darras, : political leaders invited by journalists to speak on the media have previously been distinguished by their own group.
During our interview, Robert Maggiori was not very concerned about the logic of his recruitment, he insisted on the "freedom" that had guided his choice. Our assessment is fully consistent with his own statement: this journalist probably operates a free choice within a population of philosophers previously selected by editors, selection boards, and co-optation among peers. The field of professional philosophy is rather closed, and deeply related to the field of philosophical publishing.
The most valorised texts of the issue were written by the philosophers who regularly appear in the media. It is natural that he signs the editorial. This year, Umberto Eco did me the honour of agreeing to join the editorial board. He has never done it anywhere else. These two personalities are well known among the general public.
We shall recognize here several logics. First, some philosophers are known enough by the media to have the right to be evasive on their exact grade: Elisabeth Roudinesco, Michel Serres. This is is not the case in the professional environment, where the dissimulation of grades can be interpreted as a mark of imposture. As we explained in the introduction, we interviewed these two journalists during our PhD research. The first one is the space constraint.
Camus, Albert | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The second one is the need to reason with common places arguments. The third one is the constraint of formal inventiveness. We never say to them, write this, or write that. They write absolutely whatever they want. He died in Locke never married nor had children. Petersburg, Russia. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. It is divided into the First Treatise and the Second Treatise. The First Treatise is focused on the refutation of Sir Robert Filmer, in particular his Patriarcha , which argued that civil society was founded on a divinely sanctioned patriarchalism.
The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society. He goes on to explain the hypothetical rise of property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent of the people. Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown. Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed that human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance. Similarly to Hobbes, he assumed that the sole right to defend in the state of nature was not enough, so people established a civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government in a state of society.
However, Locke never refers to Hobbes by name and may instead have been responding to other writers of the day. He also advocated governmental separation of powers, and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances. These ideas would come to have profound influence on the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.
However, Locke did not demand a republic.
PHILOSOPHER OF FREEDOM
Rather, he believed a legitimate contract could easily exist between citizens and a monarchy, an oligarchy, or in some mixed form. He defines the state of nature as a condition, in which humans are rational and follow natural law, and in which all men are born equal with the right to life, liberty and property. However, when one citizen breaks the Law of Nature, both the transgressor and the victim enter into a state of war, from which it is virtually impossible to break free.
However, historians also note that Locke was a major investor in the English slave-trade through the Royal African Company. In addition, he participated in drafting the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina , which established a feudal aristocracy and gave a master absolute power over his slaves.