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All or Nothing? G Rose. Article information. Article Information Volume: 10 issue: 2, page s : The objective of this section is to discuss the articulations between work and human suffering. The first research pursuits in the s were dedicated to the investigation of psychic disturbances caused by work.
Unquestionably, this is the reason why studies relating to stress theory emerged at the same time. An important issue that beaconed investigations into the psychopathology of work was as follows: How can employees, despite the embarrassments found in the work situation, preserve their psychic equilibrium and maintain normalcy? Thus, the focus was less into the investigation of mental illnesses and more into the strategies crafted by employees to deal with suffering and mentally cope with the work situation [ 1 ].
As far as origin is concerned, suffering can be classified as singular suffering diachronic dimension —that inherited from each individual's own psychic history and current suffering synchronic dimension , emerging from the relationship that the individual establishes in work situations. Considering the responses strategies that workers devise to cope with working situations, suffering can be creative or pathogenic.
The first occurs when the subject, struggling against suffering, crafts original solutions, which are generally simultaneously favorable to production and health. On the other hand, the individual may propose unfavorable solutions to his own health as well, creating pathogenic suffering [ 1 ]. As of the early s, the psychopathology of work was especially concerned with the establishment of a clinic for this suffering found in the psychic relation with work.
Studies disclosed that pressures from work that jeopardize equilibrium and mental health do not ensue from physical conditions noise, temperature, vibrations, etc. This objective is vain, if not absurd. Firstly because as soon as driven away, suffering reappears and crystallizes in other forms as offered by reality.
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Therefore, instead of suppressing situations that cause suffering, managers should provide conditions under which individuals can themselves manage their anguish. The challenge is then to reconcile mental health and work. In convergence with this line, psychoanalysis itself recognizes that there is no way to eliminate the symptom, which has two aspects: suffering and dysfunction [ 42 ]: For psychoanalysis, there is no symptom elimination but a transmutation of symptoms.
The Problem with Pleasure: Modernism and Its Discontents
When one disappears, the other steps in, in greater or lesser tune with the subject. In this sense, it is true that psychoanalysis does not heal. Thus, psychoanalysis proposes to reconcile the subject with the symptom, treating by the symptom instead of treating the symptom, implying a change in the relationship between the individual and his enjoyment his fantasy. Being happy, more than an individual pursuit, is part of government plans.
Indeed, throughout his elaborations on social phenomena, Fred continuously highlighted the importance of cultural material available and active in society for the psychic operation of subjectivities. Following such indication, much has been discussed in the psychoanalytic milieu about the dynamics of contemporary society, seeking to make explicit the extent to which the cultural context favors the production of subjectivation modes distinct from those emerging in the beginnings of the twentieth century.
The theoretical framework of psychoanalysis is based on Freud's clinic, with hysterias.
COLLECTED ESSAYS ON LITERATURE AND CRITICISM:
Since The Interpretation of Dreams [ 43 ], however, the world underwent significant changes and current modes of psychic suffering are not the same that characterize the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Scientific and technological advances, the globalization of the economy and markets and the new outlines of the capitalist production and consumption system arouse issues and impasse different that those that characterized the time when psychoanalysis was conceived.
Issues related to fidelity and trust are therefore frontally affected, especially in countries such as Brazil where emotional relationships, camaraderie and informality are strongly connected to protectionism and employment and authority ties [ 44 ]. If there is a relationship between the subject and one's subjective experience, then one could say that there equally is a relationship between types of illness and the appearance of new manners of subjectivation.
One could also expand these assumptions proposing new issues, such as Why does a specific manner of suffering impose itself at specific times? To what extent are the modes of illness disclosers of individuality changes in specific periods? From such framework, one could consider the contemporary subjectivation experience articulates with specific forms of illness, while the subjective experience of modernity articulated or had others prevail. If this is the case, What about psychoanalysis and its extent in the organizational context? Thus, What about the changes experiences in the work environment?
What has been cast regarding the production of new subjectivities? As concerns the effects of new management models upon workers, domestic bibliography in the management field has suggested an absence of consensus and radical critics to more optimistic authors regarding the possibilities of these new models that can be identified. Underlining trends that seem to be quickly disseminating among more innovative companies, among which are labor training and stabilization policies, leaner wages and jobs structures and delayering companies, more optimistic authors have remarked that these policies have been implying significant changes in workplaces, including the abatement of the conflictive nature that was characteristic of labor relations in the country from their very beginnings [ 45 ].
Studies also exist that convey to the analysis of the implications ensuing from new organizational setups about subjectivity and mental health of workers, indicating the emergence of new forms of suffering and occupational illnesses [ 1 , 2 , 5 , 46 — 48 ]. From the illnesses whose focus was the body, in its physical dimension—muscular fatigue, back pain, injuries and illnesses ensuing from physical conditions at the workplace—typical of the industrial era , the counterpoise are new symptoms and illnesses which now have the psy dimension as their primary target: anxiety, depression, stress, burnout syndromes and a broad array of new maladies.
From the analysis of this ensemble of authors, verifiably, at the same time that organizational innovations can signify the possibility of more enriched, autonomous and creative work for some, they may also represent poorer work, devoid of content and more precarious for others, and even their simple exclusion from the formal work market. In a work, they bring along new challenges, paradoxes and contradictions whose effects upon workers and especially upon their mental health and modes of subjectivation deserve better understanding. The human suffering perspective in organizations, therefore, could bring original contributions to the debate about the relationship between individuals and work.
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Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Keywords human work human suffering psychopathology of work. Quality of working life: origin, evolution, concepts and dimensions 2. Concepts and main dimensions QWL has been defined in literature by different forms. Factors Dimensions 1. Fair and adequate compensation 1. Income adequate to work 1. Internal equity 1. External equity 2.
Safety and health in working conditions 2. Working hours 2. Safe and healthy physical environment 3. Immediate opportunity to develop human capabilities 3. Autonomy 3. Task meaning 3. Task identity 3. Variety of skills 3. Feedback 4. Future opportunity for continuous growth and professional assurance 4. Career possibilities 4.
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Professional growth 4. Job security 5. Social integration in the organization 5. Equal opportunities 5. Relationship 5. Community sense 6. Unlike the Prince of Salina, the guest from the North was a herald of the new age.